Flicker Explained: guide to IEC for the lighting industry

Johannes Lindén, Carsten Dam-Hansen

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Flicker, or more precisely temporal light modulation (TLM), has re-emerged as a problem with the introduction of LED-based lighting technology. TLM, meaning variations in light intensity over time, may have negative effects on human health, causing annoyance, headaches, eyestrain and migraine. In addition to the unnecessary suffering TLM causes in individuals, the negative consequences of TLM create an obstacle to broad and rapid adaptation of the new LED-technology and consequently also an obstacle to potential energy savings.

This guide gives an introduction to TLM, what it is and how it is measured. The effect of TLM on health is concluded, and also the state of knowledge in its research area. An extended part of this guide discusses the flicker measure short-term flicker indicator, Pst, and the technical report describing it, TR IEC 61547-1:2020 (henceforth referred to as IEC 61547, unless otherwise stated). This report describes the equipment, method and measures required to assess flicker. It is, however, technically complicated and could be very hard to interpret by non-technical readers. For a more detailed investigation and recommended amendments of the IEC 61547, see “Flicker explained – Interpretation of the Technical Report IEC 61547“ which is another product of the project Flicker Explained. For a general guide on TLM measurements, please consult the technical note published by International Commission on Illumination, CIE TN 012:2012.
Antal sidor16
ISBN (elektroniskt)978-91-8039-523-6
StatusPublished - 2022 dec. 22

Bibliografisk information

This work has been supported by the Swedish Energy Agency and conducted in collaboration between Lund University and the Technical University of Denmark (DTU).

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ)

  • Annan elektroteknik och elektronik
  • Arbetslivsstudier
  • Miljömedicin och yrkesmedicin


  • Flimmer
  • Temporal ljusmodulering
  • TLM
  • LED-teknologi


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