SpoVD and PBP4b are structurally very similar high-molecular-weight, class B penicillin-binding proteins produced early during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. SpoVD is known to be essential for endospore cortex synthesis and thereby the production of heat-resistant spores. The role of PBP4b is still enigmatic. Both proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm of the mother cell. PBP4b remains in the cytoplasmic membrane of the mother cell, whereas SpoVD accumulates in the forespore outer membrane. By the use of SpoVD/PBP4b chimeras with swapped protein domains, we show that the N-terminal part of SpoVD, containing the single transmembrane region, determines the forespore targeting of the protein.