Frailty and osteoporosis in patients with hip fractures under the age of 60-a prospective cohort of 218 individuals

Sebastian Strøm Rönnquist, Bjarke Viberg, Morten Tange Kristensen, Henrik Palm, Jens-Erik Beck Jensen, Carsten Fladmose Madsen, Kristina E Åkesson, Søren Overgaard, Cecilia Rogmark

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskriftPeer review

Sammanfattning

Research on younger patients with hip fractures is limited. This study adds knowledge on patient and injury characteristics, and DXA was investigated at the time of the fracture. Risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures were numerous among young patients, and osteoporosis was markedly more prevalent than in the general population.

INTRODUCTION: Knowledge on younger patients with hip fractures is limited. Common preconceptions are that they suffer fractures due to high-energy trauma, alcohol or substance use disorder but not associated to osteoporosis. We aimed to descriptively analyze the characteristics of young and middle-aged patients with hip fractures and examine bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the time of the fracture.

METHODS: A prospective multicenter cohort study on adult patients with hip fractures below age 60 collected detailed information on patient characteristics regarding demographics, trauma mechanism, previous fractures, comorbidity and medication, and lifestyle factors. DXA results were compared to population-based reference data.

RESULTS: The cohort contains 91 women and 127 men, median age 53 (IQR 47-57). Most fractures, 83%, occurred in patients aged 45-59. Two-thirds of all fractures resulted from low-energy trauma. Half of the patients had prior fractures after age 20. Thirty-four percent were healthy, 31% had one previous disease, and 35% had multiple comorbidities. Use of medication associated with increased fracture risk was 32%. Smoking was prevalent in 42%, harmful alcohol use reported by 29%, and signs of drug-related problems by 8%. Osteoporosis according to WHO criteria was found in 31%, osteopenia in 57%, and normal BMD in 12%.

CONCLUSION: In patients with hip fractures below age 60, risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures were numerous. Moreover, the prevalence of osteoporosis was markedly higher than in the general population. We suggest that young and middle-aged patients with hip fractures undergo a thorough health investigation including DXA, regardless of trauma mechanism.

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