Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents—Psychometric Analyses of Gaming Behavior, Gender Differences and ADHD

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Background: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was recently added in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder as a “condition for further studies.” There is no consensus regarding which rating scales should be used but many scholars suggest the GASA (Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents) and a ranking of the criteria, “the core approach” to avoid over-diagnosing of disordered gaming. Male gender and ADHD are commonly listed as risk factors for disordered gaming but little is known about sex differences in gaming and gender specific health correlates. Purpose: The present study aims to evaluate the core approach and the specific indicators of gaming behavior in GASA from a multifactorial perspective and explore the gender differences in a clinical setting, focusing on ADHD. Patients and Methods: Children and adolescents aged 8–18 years (n = 144) from Child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) in Skane were assessed with the GASA. Psychometric analyses including confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to identify well-defined constructs and gender differences. Refined factor scores for single constructs were the outcome of alignment, a procedure for assessing measurement equivalence across gender. New model-based gaming behavior variables were used for descriptive statistics and ANOVA testing of gender differences. Results: The results confirm that the core approach two-factor model is valid for the CAP sample, as well as a theory based psycho-social model for gaming behavior with over consumption and negative social and emotional consequences. Our findings suggest that negative consequences of over consumption take a social direction for boys and an emotional direction for girls. Also, ADHD was significantly associated with over consumption of video games and the negative consequences thereof for girls. Conclusion: Guided by psychometric analyses, the GASA could be strengthened by advancing the questionnaire design and by adding complementary items in order to illuminate the complexity of gaming behavior. Our findings suggest that additional research on potential gender related discrepancies of disordered gaming is needed.

TidskriftFrontiers in Psychiatry
StatusPublished - 2022 mars

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ)

  • Psykiatri


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