In view of the global increase in diabetes, and the fact that recent findings indicate that diabetic neuropathy is more frequently seen in males, it is crucial to evaluate any gender differences in nerve regeneration in diabetes. Our aim was to evaluate in short-term experiments gender dissimilarities in axonal outgrowth in healthy and in genetically developed type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, and also to investigate the connection between activated (i.e. ATF-3, Activating Transcription Factor 3) and apoptotic (cleaved caspase 3) Schwann cells after sciatic nerve injury and repair. Female and male diabetic GK rats, spontaneously developing type 2 diabetes, were compared with corresponding healthy Wistar rats. The sciatic nerve was transected and instantly repaired. After six days the nerve was harvested to measure axonal outgrowth (i.e. neurofilament staining), and to quantify the number of ATF-3 (i.e. activated) and cleaved caspase 3 (i.e. apoptotic) stained Schwann cells using immunohistochemistry.