Health Hazards in Middle-Aged Women with Cardiovascular Disease: A Case-Control Study of Swedish Women. The Women's Health in the Lund Area (WHILA) Study.

Yasameen Shakir, Göran Samsioe, Ali Khatibi Esfanjani, Per Nyberg, Jonas Lidfeldt, Carl-David Agardh, Christina Nerbrand

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskriftPeer review


Objective: To delineate the health profile in middle-aged women with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: The Women's Health in the Lund Area (WHILA) project covered all women born 1935 - 1945 ( n = 10,766) living in the Lund area; 6917 (64.2%) women completed a generic questionnaire and underwent physical and laboratory assessments. Of the 6917 women, 6416 were postmenopausal women, of whom 104 had CVD. For each woman with CVD, two controls were selected and matched for age, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio (WHR), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density liproprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), diastolic blood pressure and hormonal status. Results: One hundred four women (1.6%) reported CVD. Forty-nine had a myocardial infarction (MI), 49 had a stroke, and 6 women had both events; 71.4% were postmenopausal, with never use of hormone therapy ( HT) ( PM0), and 28.6% were postmenopausal with ever use of HT (PMT). Compared with the control group, serum androstendione was lower ( p = 0.004) in the case group, and menopausal estradiol (E-2) values were less frequent ( p = 0.037) in cases from the PM0 group. Among psychological and somatic symptoms, nervousness ( p < 0.05), difficulty relaxing, crying easily, visual disturbance ( p <= 0.01 for all), dizziness, difficulties in voiding urine, shortness of breath, breast tenderness, "and constipation ( p <= 0.001 for all) were more common among women with CVD. Women with CVD expressed less satisfaction with feeling healthy, body image, memory loss, irritability, and sexuality ( p <= 0.05 for all). The case group had more problems with daily activities, more days spent in hospital during the previous 5 years, and more regular medical appointments with healthcare centers, more often had diabetes mellitus (DM) ( p < 0.001 for all), and had experienced more falls in the previous year ( p < 0.05). Urinary incontinence and decreased body weight were more common among cases ( p <= 0.01 for both). Conclusion: Several health hazards as well as somatic and psychological symptoms were more common in subjects with CVD, rendering them more susceptible to future disease.
Sidor (från-till)406-414
TidskriftJournal of Women's Health
StatusPublished - 2007

Bibliografisk information

The information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015.
The record was previously connected to the following departments: Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö (013240000), Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund (013230000), Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (Lund) (013018000), Family Medicine (013241010), Unit on Vascular Diabetic Complications (013241510), Care in high technological environments (013220010)

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ)

  • Klinisk medicin
  • Annan klinisk medicin


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