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Over the past decades, the field of in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) has built up an impressive repertoire of data acquisition and analysis technologies for anatomical, functional, physiological, and molecular imaging, the description of which requires many book volumes. As such it is impossible for a few authors to have an authoritative overview of the field and for a brief article to be inclusive. We will therefore focus mainly on data acquisition and attempt to give some insight into the principles underlying current advanced methods in the field and the potential for further innovation. In our view, the foreseeable future is expected to show continued rapid progress, for instance in imaging of microscopic tissue properties in vivo, assessment of functional and anatomical connectivity, higher resolution physiologic and metabolic imaging, and even imaging of receptor binding. In addition, acquisition speed and information content will continue to increase due to the continuous development of approaches for parallel imaging (including simultaneous multi-slice imaging), compressed sensing, and MRI fingerprinting. Finally, artificial intelligence approaches are becoming more realistic and will have a tremendous effect on both acquisition and analysis strategies. Together, these developments will continue to provide opportunity for scientific discovery and, in combination with large data sets from other fields such as genomics, allow the ultimate realization of precision medicine in the clinic.
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