It has been suggested that a number of molecules associated with inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We measured the levels of alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT), alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and oxidised low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in matched cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of 141 patients with probable AD. We found a significant relationship between CSF and plasma levels of ACT (r = 0.4, p < 0.001), IL-6 (r = 0.74, p < 0.001), MCP-1 (r = 0.71, p < 0.001), and a borderline relationship between CSF and plasma oxLDL (r = 0.22, p < 0.05). In addition, linear regression analysis revealed a positive correlation between levels of CSF-ACT and oxLDL (p < 0.001), but an inverse relation between levels of CSF ACT, CSF AAT and MCP-1 (p < 0.001). A significant correlation was also found between levels of CSF ACT, oxLDL and the ratio of CSF to serum albumin, which is used as a measure of the blood-brain barrier function. Our data extend previous reports regarding the inflammatory markers in the plasma and CSF of patients with AD and provide good evidence that levels of ACT, IL-6, MCP-1 and oxLDL in plasma and CSF might be candidates as biomarkers for monitoring the inflammatory process in AD.
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