In epilepsy patients, drug-resistant seizures often originate in one of the temporal lobes. In selected cases, when certain requirements are met, this area is surgically resected for therapeutic reasons. We kept the resected tissue slices alive in vitro for 48 h to create a platform for testing a novel treatment strategy based on neuropeptide Y (NPY) against drug-resistant epilepsy. We demonstrate that NPY exerts a significant inhibitory effect on epileptiform activity, recorded with whole-cell patch-clamp, in human hippocampal dentate gyrus. Application of NPY reduced overall number of paroxysmal depolarising shifts and action potentials. This effect was mediated by Y2 receptors, since application of selective Y2-receptor antagonist blocked the effect of NPY. This proof-of-concept finding is an important translational milestone for validating NPY-based gene therapy for targeting focal drug-resistant epilepsies, and increasing the prospects for positive outcome in potential clinical trials.