Insulin was tested for effects on crush injured, in vitro regenerating, adult frog sciatic sensory axons. A wide range of insulin concentrations (0.01-10 μg × ml-1) was found to stimulate incorporation of radioactive leucine into ganglionic protein by 50-80%. without affecting the regeneration distance. Simultaneously insulin inhibited the proliferation of the support cells at the crush region by 30%, as measured by thymidine incorporation. Experiments using compartmentalized culture dishes indicated that the proliferation inhibitory effect could be indirect and mediated by the neuronal cells. The results suggest that insulin influences the metabolism of adult peripheral neuronal cell bodies. The stimulated nerve cells could in turn affect the proliferation of support cells in the nerve trunk.