Investigations of the kinetics and mechanism of reduction of a carboplatin pt(IV) prodrug by the major small-molecule reductants in human plasma

Yang Liu, Hongwu Tian, Liyao Xu, Li Zhou, Jinhu Wang, Benyan Xu, Chunli Liu, Lars I. Elding, Tiesheng Shi

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskriftPeer review

Sammanfattning

The development of Pt(IV) anticancer prodrugs to overcome the detrimental side effects of Pt(II)-based anticancer drugs is of current interest. The kinetics and reaction mechanisms of the reductive activation of the carboplatin Pt(IV) prodrug cis,trans-[Pt(cbdca)(NH3)2Cl2] (cbdca = cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylate) by the major small-molecule reductants in human plasma were analyzed in this work. The reductants included ascorbate (Asc), the thiol-containing molecules L-cysteine (Cys), DL-homocysteine (Hcy), and glutathione (GSH), and the dipeptide Cys–Gly. Overall second-order kinetics were established in all cases. At the physiological pH of 7.4, the observed second-order rate constants k followed the order Asc << Cys–Gly ~ Hcy < GSH < Cys. This reactivity order together with the abundances of the reductants in human plasma indicated Cys as the major small-molecule reductant in vivo, followed by GSH and ascorbate, whereas Hcy is much less important. In the cases of Cys and GSH, detailed reaction mechanisms and the reactivity of the various protolytic species at physiological pH were derived. The rate constants of the rate-determining steps were evaluated, allowing the construction of reactivity-versus-pH distribution diagrams for Cys and GSH. The diagrams unraveled that species III of Cys (SCH2CH(NH3 +)COO) and species IV of GSH (OOCCH(NH3 +)CH2CH2CONHCH(CH2S)-CONHCH2COO) were exclusively dominant in the reduction process. These two species are anticipated to be of pivotal importance in the reduction of other types of Pt(IV) prodrugs as well.

Originalspråkengelska
Artikelnummer5660
TidskriftInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volym20
Nummer22
DOI
StatusPublished - 2019

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