Conclusion. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge of the human nose has the capacity to reduce the amount of natural anti-inflammatory proteins, such as uteroglobin. Objectives. Nasal challenge with LPS, an activator of innate immunity, has been shown to increase the amount of pro-inflammatory mediators in nasal lavage fluid. Uteroglobin is a newly described anti-inflammatory mediator that is secreted in the nose. This study examined the effect of nasal LPS application on the level of uteroglobin in nasal lavage fluid as well as on the expression of uteroglobin in nasal mucosa. Materials and methods. Thirty-eight volunteers were challenged nasally with either 50 mu g LPS or vehicle; 6 h later, nasal lavage fluid was collected and a nasal biopsy was obtained. Levels of uteroglobin, albumin and the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 were analysed in the lavage fluids using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Biopsies were used for either quantification of uteroglobin mRNA by real-time PCR or for localization of the corresponding protein with immunohistochemistry. Results. The uteroglobin level decreased in nasal lavage fluid following LPS challenge, whereas the levels of IL-6 and albumin increased. Uteroglobin was mainly seen in the respiratory epithelium and its mRNA expression decreased as a consequence of the LPS challenge.