Low birthweight is associated with a higher incidence of type 2 diabetes over two decades independent of adult BMI and genetic predisposition

Rasmus Wibaek, Gregers S. Andersen, Allan Linneberg, Torben Hansen, Niels Grarup, Anne Cathrine B. Thuesen, Rasmus T. Jensen, Jonathan C.K. Wells, Kasper A. Pilgaard, Charlotte Brøns, Dorte Vistisen, Allan A. Vaag

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskriftPeer review


Aims/hypothesis: Low birthweight is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Most previous studies are based on cross-sectional prevalence data, not designed to study the timing of onset of type 2 diabetes in relation to birthweight. We aimed to examine associations of birthweight with age-specific incidence rate of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged to older adults over two decades. Methods: Adults aged 30–60 years enrolled in the Danish Inter99 cohort in 1999–2001 (baseline examination), with information on birthweight from original birth records from 1939–1971 and without diabetes at baseline, were eligible. Birth records were linked with individual-level data on age at diabetes diagnosis and key covariates. Incidence rates of type 2 diabetes as a function of age, sex and birthweight were modelled using Poisson regression, adjusting for prematurity status at birth, parity, polygenic scores for birthweight and type 2 diabetes, maternal and paternal diabetes history, socioeconomic status and adult BMI. Results: In 4590 participants there were 492 incident type 2 diabetes cases during a mean follow-up of 19 years. Type 2 diabetes incidence rate increased with age, was higher in male participants, and decreased with increasing birthweight (incidence rate ratio [95% CI per 1 kg increase in birthweight] 0.60 [0.48, 0.75]). The inverse association of birthweight with type 2 diabetes incidence was statistically significant across all models and in sensitivity analysis. Conclusions/interpretation: A lower birthweight was associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes independent of adult BMI and genetic risk of type 2 diabetes and birthweight. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Sidor (från-till)1669-1679
Antal sidor11
StatusPublished - 2023 sep.

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ)

  • Endokrinologi och diabetes


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