Method Matters: Exploring Alkoxysulfonate-Functionalized Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and Its Unintentional Self-Aggregating Copolymer toward Injectable Bioelectronics

Abdelrazek H. Mousa, David Bliman, Lazaro Hiram Betancourt, Karin Hellman, Peter Ekström, Marios Savvakis, Xenofon Strakosas, György Marko-Varga, Magnus Berggren, Martin Hjort, Fredrik Ek, Roger Olsson

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskriftPeer review


Injectable bioelectronics could become an alternative or a complement to traditional drug treatments. To this end, a new self-doped p-type conducting PEDOT-S copolymer (A5) was synthesized. This copolymer formed highly water-dispersed nanoparticles and aggregated into a mixed ion-electron conducting hydrogel when injected into a tissue model. First, we synthetically repeated most of the published methods for PEDOT-S at the lab scale. Surprisingly, analysis using high-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectroscopy showed that almost all the methods generated PEDOT-S derivatives with the same polymer lengths (i.e., oligomers, seven to eight monomers in average); thus, the polymer length cannot account for the differences in the conductivities reported earlier. The main difference, however, was that some methods generated an unintentional copolymer P(EDOT-S/EDOT-OH) that is more prone to aggregate and display higher conductivities in general than the PEDOT-S homopolymer. Based on this, we synthesized the PEDOT-S derivative A5, that displayed the highest film conductivity (33 S cm-1) among all PEDOT-S derivatives synthesized. Injecting A5 nanoparticles into the agarose gel cast with a physiological buffer generated a stable and highly conductive hydrogel (1-5 S cm-1), where no conductive structures were seen in agarose with the other PEDOT-S derivatives. Furthermore, the ion-treated A5 hydrogel remained stable and maintained initial conductivities for 7 months (the longest period tested) in pure water, and A5 mixed with Fe3O4 nanoparticles generated a magnetoconductive relay device in water. Thus, we have successfully synthesized a water-processable, syringe-injectable, and self-doped PEDOT-S polymer capable of forming a conductive hydrogel in tissue mimics, thereby paving a way for future applications within in vivo electronics.

Sidor (från-till)2752-2763
TidskriftChemistry of Materials
Tidigt onlinedatum2022
StatusPublished - 2022

Bibliografisk information

Funding Information:
This study was accomplished within MultiPark, NanoLund and Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials─Strategic Research Areas at Lund University and Linköping University, respectively. This work was supported by Swedish Research Council (2018-05258 and 2018-06197), Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (e-NeuroPharmacology, RMX18-0083), and the European Research Council (ERC) project (e-NeuroPharma 834677). The cation exchange resin was provided by Lanxess AG.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ)

  • Materialkemi
  • Polymerkemi


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