The increasing incidence of age-induced cognitive decline justifies the search for complementary ways of prevention or delay. We studied the effects of concentrates of phospholipids, sphingolipids, and/or 3-n fatty acids on the expression of genes or miRNAs related to synaptic activity and/or neurodegeneration, in the hippocampus of aged Wistar rats following a 3-month supplementation. The combination of two phospholipidic concentrates of krill oil (KOC) and buttermilk (BMFC) origin modulated the hippocampal expression of 119 miRNAs (11 were common to both BMFC and BMFC + KOC groups). miR-191a-5p and miR-29a-3p changed significantly only in the BMFC group, whereas miR-195-3p and miR-148a-5p did so only in the combined-supplemented group. Thirty-eight, 58, and 72 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were found in the groups supplemented with KOC, BMFC and BMFC + KOC, respectively. Interaction analysis unveiled networks of selected miRNAs with their potential target genes. DEG found in the KOC and BMFC groups were mainly involved in neuroactive processes, whereas they were associated with lysosomes and mRNA surveillance pathways in the BMFC + KOC group. We also report a significant reduction in hippocampal ceramide levels with BMFC + KOC. Our results encourage additional in-depth investigations regarding the potential beneficial effects of these compounds.