Early childhood deprivations and inequalities have social and economic implications in adulthood and thus, their elimination is essential for child development. However, child-level estimates of poverty are rare in low income countries. Using data from two recent rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, we measure the extent and sources of childhood deprivations in Ghana and examine subgroup differentials in child poverty. In addition, we examine the child quality-quantity by estimating the causal relationship between number of children and child poverty. Finally, we assess the sources of rural-urban inequalities in child poverty. We find that despite declining incidence and intensity of multidimensional child poverty, significant subgroup differentials persist in Ghana. The findings of the paper reveal that living standards is the main contributor to multidimensional poverty in early childhood in Ghana. Our findings also confirm a significant causal relationship between child quality and quantity in Ghana, there exist a positive relationship between the number of children and the intensity of child poverty in Ghana. Finally, we find that rural-urban inequalities in child multidimensional poverty in Ghana are attributable to differences in observed maternal and household characteristics between rural and urban areas. The persistence of subgroup disparities in child poverty may be detrimental to achieving equitable and inclusive growth in the country. There is the need for considerations of equity, fairness and social justice in the distribution and development of social services and economic infrastructure to ensure even distribution of social and economic opportunities and promote social mobility across groups.
- Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi