Cytochromes of the c type in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis are all membrane anchored, with their heme domains exposed on the outer side of the cytoplasmic membrane. They are distinguished from other cytochromes by having heme covalently attached by two thioether bonds. The cysteinyls in the heme-binding site (CXXCH) in apocytochrome c must be reduced in order for the covalent attachment of the heme to occur. It has been proposed that CcdA, a membrane protein, transfers reducing equivalents from thioredoxin in the cytoplasm to proteins on the outer side of the cytoplasmic membrane. Strains deficient in the CcdA protein are defective in cytochrome c and spore synthesis. We have discovered that mutations in the bdbC and bdbD genes can suppress the defects caused by lack of CcdA. BdbC and BdbD are thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases. Our experimental findings indicate that these B. subtilis proteins functionally correspond to the well-characterized Escherichia coli DsbB and DsbA proteins, which catalyze the formation of disulfide bonds in proteins in the periplasmic space.