Exercise is considered to be a "medicine" due to its modulatory roles in metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. The intensity and duration of exercise determine the mechanism of energy production by various tissues of the body, especially by muscles, in which the requirement for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) increases by as much as 100-fold. Naturally, athletes try to improve their exercise performance by dietary supplementation with, e.g., vitamins, metabolites, and amino acids. MNAM, as a vitamin B3 metabolite, reduces serum levels and liver contents of triglycerides, and cholesterol and induces lipolysis. It stimulates gluconeogenesis and prohibits liver cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis through the expression of sirtuin1 (SIRT1). It seems that MNAM is not responsible for the actions of NNMT in the adipose tissues as MNAM inhibits the activity of NNMT in the adipose tissue and acts like inhibitors of its activity. NNMT-MNAM axis is more activated in the muscles of participants who were undergoing the high-volume-low-intensity exercise and caloric restriction. Therefore, MNAM could be an important myokine during exercise and fasting where it provides the required energy for muscles through the induction of lipolysis and gluconeogenesis in the liver and adipose tissues, respectively. Increased levels of MNAM in exercise and fasting led us to propose that the consumption of MNAM during training especially endurance training could boost exercise capacity and improves performance. Therefore, in this review, we shed light on the potential of MNAM as a dietary supplement in sports medicine.
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- Endokrinologi och diabetes