Operando study of HfO2 atomic layer deposition on partially hydroxylated Si(111)

Rosemary Jones, Giulio D’Acunto, Payam Shayesteh, Indiana Pinsard, François Rochet, Fabrice Bournel, Jean Jacques Gallet, Ashley Head, Joachim Schnadt

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Sammanfattning

The introduction of atomic layer deposition (ALD), to the microelectronics industry has introduced a large number of new possible materials able to be deposited in layers with atomic thickness control. One such material is the high-κ oxide HfO2; thermally stable and ultrathin HfO2 films deposited by ALD are a significant contender to replace SiO2 as the gate oxide in capacitor applications. We present a mechanistic study of the first deposition cycle of HfO2 on the Si(111) surface using tetrakis(dimethylamido) hafnium (TDMAHf) and water as precursors using operando ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Here, we show that the hydroxylation of the clean Si(111) surface by residual water vapor, resulting in a 0.3 monolayer coverage of hydroxyls, leads to instantaneous full surface coverage of TDMAHf. The change in the atomic ratio of Hf to C/N found during the first deposition half-cycle, however, does not match the assumed immediate ligand loss through reaction with surface hydroxyls. One would expect an immediate loss of ligands, indicated by a Hf:N ratio of approximately 1:3 as TDMAHf deposits onto the surface; however, a Hf:N ratio of 1:3.6 is observed. The partial hydroxylation on the Si(111) surface leads to binding through the TDMAHf ligand N atoms resulting in both N and CH3 being found remaining on the surface post water half-cycle. Although there is evidence of ligand exchange reactions occurring at Si-OH sites, it also seems that N binding can occur on bare Si, highlighting the complexity of the substrate/precursor reaction even when hydroxyls are present. Moreover, the initial low coverage of Si-OH/Si-H appears to severely limit the amount of Hf deposited, which we hypothesize is due to the specific geometry of the initial arrangement of Si-OH/Si-H on the rest- and adatoms.

Originalspråkengelska
Artikelnummer022404
TidskriftJournal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films
Volym42
Nummer2
DOI
StatusPublished - 2024 mars 1

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