Photoacoustic imaging for the monitoring of local changes in oxygen saturation following an adrenaline injection in human forearm skin

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Clinical monitoring of blood oxygen saturation (sO2) is traditionally performed using optical techniques, such as pulse oximetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), which lack spatial resolution. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a rapidly developing biomedical imaging technique that is superior to previous techniques in that it combines optical excitation and acoustic detection, providing a map of chromophore distribution in the tissue. Hitherto, PAI has primarily been used in preclinical studies, and only a few studies have been performed in patients. Its ability to measure sO2 with spatial resolution during local vasoconstriction after adrenaline injection has not yet been investigated. Using PAI and spectral unmixing we characterize the heterogeneous change in sO2 after injecting a local anesthetic containing adrenaline into the dermis on the forearm of seven healthy subjects. In comparison to results obtained using DRS, we highlight contrasting results obtained between the two methods arising due to the so-called ‘window effect’ caused by a reduced blood flow in the superficial vascular plexus. The results demonstrate the importance of spatially resolving sO2 and the ability of PAI to assess the tissue composition in different layers of the skin.
Sidor (från-till)4084-4096
Antal sidor13
TidskriftBiomedical Optics Express
StatusPublished - 2021 juli 1

Bibliografisk information

Funding Information:
Funding. Swedish Government Grant for Clinical Research (ALF); Skånes universitetssjukhus; Region Kronoberg; Skåne County Council’s Research and Development Foundation; Lund University Grant for Research Infrastructure; Swedish Cancer Foundation; Stiftelsen Kronprinsessan Margaretas Arbetsnämnd för Synskadade; Friends of the Visually Impaired Association in the county of Gävleborg (KMA); Lund Laser Center Research Grant; IngaBritt och Arne Lundbergs Forskningsstiftelse; Ögonfonden; Cronqvist Foundation; Swedish Medical Association; Lund University grant for Research Infrastructure; Stiftelsen för Synskadade i f.d. Malmöhus län.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ)

  • Medicinsk bioteknologi (med inriktning mot cellbiologi (inklusive stamcellsbiologi), molekylärbiologi, mikrobiologi, biokemi eller biofarmaci)

Fria nyckelord

  • Diffuse optical tomography
  • Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy
  • Imaging techniques
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Medical imaging
  • Speckle imaging


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