Previous work identifying determinants of co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors have focused on their association with individuals' characteristics with scant attention paid to their relationship to contextual factors. Data came from 21,007 individuals ≥15 years of age who participated in the cross-sectional 2011-2012 Spanish National Health Survey. Two indicators were defined by tobacco consumption, alcohol intake, diet, physical activity, and body mass index. The first indicator, based on dichotomized measures, ranges from 0 to 5. The second one (unhealthy lifestyle index), ranges from 0 to 15, with 0 denoting the healthiest score. Among the determinants, we examined social support, five perceived characteristics of the neighborhood, and the socioeconomic deprivation index of the census tract of residence. Data were analyzed using multilevel linear and logistic regression models adjusted for the main sociodemographic characteristics. Using the dichotomized indicator, the probability of having 3-5 risk factors versus <3 factors was associated with low social support (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.50; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.25-1.80). Issues surrounding neighborhood cleanliness (OR = 1.18; 95%CI: 1.04-1.33), air pollution (OR = 1.38; 95%CI: 1.16-1.64), and street crime (OR = 1.21; 95%CI: 1.03-1.42) were associated with determinants of co-occurrence. Risk factors co-occurrence increased as deprivation level increased: the OR for the highest deprivation quintile versus the lowest was 1.30 (95%CI: 1.14-1.48). Similar results were observed when using the unhealthy lifestyle index. Poorer physical and social environments are related to greater co-occurrence of risk factors for chronic diseases. Health promotion interventions targeting the prevention of risk factors should consider the contextual characteristics of the neighborhood environment.
|Tidskrift||Health & Place|
|Status||Published - 2022|
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- Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi