Potentials in Li-Ion Batteries Probed by Operando Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Ida Källquist, Tove Ericson, Fredrik Lindgren, Heyin Chen, Andrey Shavorskiy, Julia Maibach, Maria Hahlin

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskriftPeer review


The important electrochemical processes in a battery happen at the solid/liquid interfaces. Operando ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy (APPES) is one tool to study these processes with chemical specificity. However, accessing this crucial interface and identifying the interface signal are not trivial. Therefore, we present a measurement setup, together with a suggested model, exemplifying how APPES can be used to probe potential differences over the electrode/electrolyte interface, even without direct access to the interface. Both the change in electron electrochemical potential over the solid/liquid interface, and the change in Li chemical potential of the working electrode (WE) surface at Li-ion equilibrium can be probed. Using a Li4Ti5O12 composite as a WE, our results show that the shifts in kinetic energy of the electrolyte measured by APPES can be correlated to the electrochemical reactions occurring at the WE/electrolyte interface. Different shifts in kinetic energy are seen depending on if a phase transition reaction occurs or if a single phase is lithiated. The developed methodology can be used to evaluate charge transfer over the WE/electrolyte interface as well as the lithiation/delithiation mechanism of the WE.

Sidor (från-till)6465-6475
Antal sidor11
TidskriftACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
StatusPublished - 2022 feb. 9

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