Profiles of bystanders' motivation to defend school bully victims from a self-determination perspective

Tomas Jungert, Kristoffer Holm, Nathalie O. Iotti, Claudio Longobardi

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskriftPeer review


This study was aimed at exploring which latent profiles emerge based on ratings of self-determined motivation to defend victims of bullying, and to explore if they are related to bystander roles and victimization in bullying, as well as student–teacher relations. Data were collected from 1,800 Swedish and Italian students, with an age range between 10 and 18 years (M = 12.6, standard deviation = 1.74). The students completed a survey in their classrooms. Latent profile analysis was used to explore the possible clusters of individuals with similar ratings on the motivational variables. Multivariate analysis of variances were conducted to explore differences between the profiles in relation to their roles when witnessing bullying and to student–teacher relationships. Four latent profiles emerged. The profiles represented respondents (a) high in prosocial motivation, (b) high in externally extrinsic motivation, (c) intermediate in externally extrinsic motivation, and (d) with identified/introjected motivation. Multivariate analyses showed that reports of bystander roles when witnessing bullying, teacher–student relationships, and bullying victimization, significantly differed over the motivational profiles. The bystanders were unevenly distributed across the four groups and most individuals were categorized in the prosocial motivation group. Female and male bystanders were evenly distributed across clusters. The prosocial motivation group experienced victimization to a lesser extent than the other profile groups. Students in the intermediate externally extrinsic group were more likely to take the pro-bully and outsider role during bullying. Concerning student–teacher relationships, the prosocial motivation group reported the closest relationships with their teachers, while the intermediate externally extrinsic group reported the most conflictual relationships.

Sidor (från-till)78-88
Antal sidor11
TidskriftAggressive Behavior
Tidigt onlinedatum2020 aug. 30
StatusPublished - 2021 jan.

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ)

  • Psykologi


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