Prolonged culture of human pancreatic islets under glucotoxic conditions changes their acute beta cell calcium and insulin secretion glucose response curves from sigmoid to bell-shaped

Mohammad Tariq, Arnaldo H. de Souza, Mohammed Bensellam, Heeyoung Chae, Manon Jaffredo, Anne Françoise Close, Jean Philippe Deglasse, Laila R.B. Santos, Antoine Buemi, Nizar I. Mourad, Anne Wojtusciszyn, Matthieu Raoux, Patrick Gilon, Christophe Broca, Jean Christophe Jonas

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskriftPeer review

Sammanfattning

Aims/hypothesis: The rapid remission of type 2 diabetes by a diet very low in energy correlates with a marked improvement in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), emphasising the role of beta cell dysfunction in the early stages of the disease. In search of novel mechanisms of beta cell dysfunction after long-term exposure to mild to severe glucotoxic conditions, we extensively characterised the alterations in insulin secretion and upstream coupling events in human islets cultured for 1–3 weeks at ~5, 8, 10 or 20 mmol/l glucose and subsequently stimulated by an acute stepwise increase in glucose concentration. Methods: Human islets from 49 non-diabetic donors (ND-islets) and six type 2 diabetic donors (T2D-islets) were obtained from five isolation centres. After shipment, the islets were precultured for 3–7 days in RPMI medium containing ~5 mmol/l glucose and 10% (vol/vol) heat-inactivated FBS with selective islet picking at each medium renewal. Islets were then cultured for 1–3 weeks in RPMI containing ~5, 8, 10 or 20 mmol/l glucose before measurement of insulin secretion during culture, islet insulin and DNA content, beta cell apoptosis and cytosolic and mitochondrial glutathione redox state, and assessment of dynamic insulin secretion and upstream coupling events during acute stepwise stimulation with glucose [NAD(P)H autofluorescence, ATP/(ATP+ADP) ratio, electrical activity, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c)]. Results: Culture of ND-islets for 1–3 weeks at 8, 10 or 20 vs 5 mmol/l glucose did not significantly increase beta cell apoptosis or oxidative stress but decreased insulin content in a concentration-dependent manner and increased beta cell sensitivity to subsequent acute stimulation with glucose. Islet glucose responsiveness was higher after culture at 8 or 10 vs 5 mmol/l glucose and markedly reduced after culture at 20 vs 5 mmol/l glucose. In addition, the [Ca2+]c and insulin secretion responses to acute stepwise stimulation with glucose were no longer sigmoid but bell-shaped, with maximal stimulation at 5 or 10 mmol/l glucose and rapid sustained inhibition above that concentration. Such paradoxical inhibition was, however, no longer observed when islets were acutely depolarised by 30 mmol/l extracellular K+. The glucotoxic alterations of beta cell function were fully reversible after culture at 5 mmol/l glucose and were mimicked by pharmacological activation of glucokinase during culture at 5 mmol/l glucose. Similar results to those seen in ND-islets were obtained in T2D-islets, except that their rate of insulin secretion during culture at 8 and 20 mmol/l glucose was lower, their cytosolic glutathione oxidation increased after culture at 8 and 20 mmol/l glucose, and the alterations in GSIS and upstream coupling events were greater after culture at 8 mmol/l glucose. Conclusions/interpretation: Prolonged culture of human islets under moderate to severe glucotoxic conditions markedly increased their glucose sensitivity and revealed a bell-shaped acute glucose response curve for changes in [Ca2+]c and insulin secretion, with maximal stimulation at 5 or 10 mmol/l glucose and rapid inhibition above that concentration. This novel glucotoxic alteration may contribute to beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes independently from a detectable increase in beta cell apoptosis.

Originalspråkengelska
Sidor (från-till)709-723
TidskriftDiabetologia
Volym66
Nummer4
Tidigt onlinedatum2022
DOI
StatusPublished - 2023

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ)

  • Endokrinologi och diabetes

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