We previously reported that loss of mitochondrial transcription factor B1 (TFB1M) leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and is involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whether defects in ribosomal processing impact mitochondrial function and could play a pathogenetic role in β-cells and T2D is not known. To this end, we explored expression and the functional role of dimethyladenosine transferase 1 homolog (DIMT1), a homolog of TFB1M and a ribosomal RNA (rRNA) methyltransferase implicated in the control of rRNA. Expression of DIMT1 was increased in human islets from T2D donors and correlated positively with expression of insulin mRNA, but negatively with insulin secretion. We show that silencing of DIMT1 in insulin-secreting cells impacted mitochondrial function, leading to lower expression of mitochondrial OXPHOS proteins, reduced oxygen consumption rate, dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential, and a slower rate of ATP production. In addition, the rate of protein synthesis was retarded upon DIMT1-deficiency. Consequently, we found that DIMT1 deficiency led to perturbed insulin secretion in rodent cell lines and islets, as well as in a human β-cell line. We observed defects in rRNA processing and reduced interactions between NIN1 (RPN12) binding protein 1 homolog (NOB-1) and Pescadillo ribosomal biogenesis factor 1 (PES-1), critical ribosomal subunit RNA proteins, the dysfunction of which may play a part in disturbing protein synthesis in β-cells. In conclusion, DIMT1 deficiency perturbs protein synthesis, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and disrupted insulin secretion, both potential pathogenetic processes in T2D.
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- Endokrinologi och diabetes