Assessment of the long-term safety and efficacy of liquid inhaled insulin via AERx((R)) insulin Diabetes Management System (iDMS) in a basal/bolus treatment regimen of adults with Type 1 diabetes. Patients were randomized 2 : 1 to prandial inhaled (n = 205) or subcutaneous (s.c.) (n = 99) insulin, plus one/two daily injections of neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin for 12 months. The primary endpoints were pulmonary function tests (PFT) and baseline changes in chest X-rays at 12 months. Safety and efficacy assessments were measured at regular intervals. PFTs after 12 months were comparable between the groups, except for reduced per cent of predicted carbon monoxide lung diffusing capacity with inhaled insulin (difference: -2.03%, P = 0.04) occurring after the first 3 months and then stabilizing. There were no apparent treatment differences in chest X-rays. Overall risk of hypoglycaemia [risk ratio (RR) 1.02, P = 0.83] and adverse events were comparable between groups. Risk of nocturnal hypoglycaemia was higher in the inhaled group (RR 1.58, P = 0.001). Cough [10% (inhaled); 3% (s.c.)] tended to be mild in nature. Inhaled insulin was non-inferior to s.c. insulin for change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) after 12 months [difference 0.18% (CI 95% -0.04; 0.39)]. At trial end, mean laboratory measured fasting plasma glucose was lower in the inhaled group (inhaled 9.2 mmol/l; s.c. 11.7 mmol/l; difference: -2.53 mmol/l, P < 0.001). The safety and efficacy results in this trial were similar to those reported with other inhaled insulins; however, inhaled insulin using AERx((R)) iDMS requires further optimization to reduce nocturnal hypoglycaemia before it has comparable safety and efficacy to s.c. insulin aspart. Diabet. Med. 26, 260-267 (2009).
- Endokrinologi och diabetes