The aim was to examine achievement and self-efficacy in mathematics and native and foreign language literacy in children with specific mathematic LD (MD-only), children with comorbid mathematic and reading difficulties (MD-RD), and compare them with Q6 children without LD (controls), as well as to explore gender differences. Participants were 143 fifth-graders in Sweden who completed National Tests and measures of selfefficacy in mathematics and literacy. The MD-RD children displayed lower selfefficacy in all subjects compared to the controls, even when controlling for achievement. The MD-only children displayed lower self-efficacy in mathematics completely accounted for by their lower mathematic achievement. The lower selfefficacy for children with learning disabilities may primarily be explained by their history of low achievement interpreted as failures and their emphasis on negative appraisals.