Sepsis is a serious condition that is associated with high mortality despite advanced modern medical treatment. Recent years have witnessed novel paradigms describing host responses in sepsis. In particular, the delicate balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory reactions has been subject to intense research. This volume in the book series 'Contributions to Microbiology' presents the state of the art in this rapidly expanding field of research. Leading international experts have contributed with reviews on the most relevant topics in the field such as clinical aspects, pathways of sepsis and pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms as well as their regulation. The book will be a valuable source of up-to-date information for clinicians, microbiologists, immunologists, and students with an interest in the complex regulation of host responses during microbial sepsis.