Serum S100A8/A9 concentrations are associated with neuropsychiatric involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: a cross-sectional study

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BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric (NP) involvement and fatigue are major problems in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). S100A8/A9 is a marker of inflammation and responds to therapy in SLE patients. S100A8/A9 has an immunopathogenic role in various neurological diseases. We investigated S100A8/A9 in relation to NP-involvement and fatigue in SLE.

METHODS: 72 consecutive SLE outpatients at a tertiary centre and 26 healthy controls were included in this cross-sectional study. NPSLE was determined by specialists in rheumatology and neurology and defined according to three attribution models: "ACR", "SLICC A" and "SLICC B". Cerebral MRI was assessed by a neuroradiologist and neurocognitive testing by a neuropsychologist. The individuals were assessed by scores of pain (VAS), fatigue (VAS and FSS), and depression (MADRS-S). Concentrations of S100A8/A9 in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were measured with ELISA. Statistical calculations were performed using non-parametric methods.

RESULTS: Serum concentrations of S100A8/A9 were higher in SLE patients compared with controls (medians 1230 ng/ml; 790 ng/ml, p = 0.023). The concentrations were higher in NPSLE patients compared with non-NPSLE patients when applying the SLICC A and ACR models, but not significant when applying the SLICC B model (medians 1400 ng/ml; 920 ng/ml, p = 0.011; 1560 ng/ml; 1090 ng/ml, p = 0.050; 1460 ng/ml; 1090 ng/ml, p = 0.083, respectively). No differences of CSF S100A8/A9 concentrations were observed between NPSLE and non-NPSLE patients. SLE patients with depression or cognitive dysfunction as an ACR NPSLE manifestation had higher serum S100A8/A9 concentrations than non-NPSLE patients (median 1460 ng/ml, p = 0.007 and 1380 ng/ml, p = 0.013, respectively). Higher serum S100A8/A9 correlated with higher VAS fatigue (r = 0.31; p = 0.008) and VAS pain (r = 0.27, p = 0.021) in SLE patients. Serum S100A8/A9 was not independently associated with NPSLE when adjusting for scores of fatigue (FSS) and pain (VAS) (OR 1.86, 95% CI 0.93-3.73, p = 0.08).

CONCLUSIONS: Serum S100A8/A9 concentrations may be associated with NPSLE and fatigue. S100A8/A9 may be of interest in evaluating NPSLE, although further investigations are needed.

TidskriftBMC Rheumatology
StatusPublished - 2022 juli 9

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© 2022. The Author(s).

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ)

  • Reumatologi och inflammation


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