This paper deals with the problem of tracking cardiac motion and deformation using velocity-encoded magnetic resonance imaging. We expand upon an earlier described method and fit a spatiotemporal motion model to measured velocity data. We investigate several different spatial elements both qualitatively and quantitatively using phantom measurements and data from human subjects. In addition, we also use optical flow estimation by the Horn-Schunk method as complementary data in regions where the velocity measurements are noisy. Our results show that it is possible to obtain good motion tracking accuracy in phantoms with relatively few spatial elements, if the type of element is properly chosen. The use of optical flow can correct some measurement artifacts but may give an underestimation of the magnitude of the deformation. In human subjects the different spatial elements perform quantitatively in a similar way but qualitative differences exists, as shown by a semiquantitative visual scoring of the different methods.
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