GaN nanowires (NWs) are promising building blocks for future optoelectronic devices and nanoelectronics. They exhibit stronger piezoelectric properties than bulk GaN. This phenomena may be crucial for applications of NWs and makes their study highly important. We report on an investigation of the structure evolution of a single GaN NW under an applied voltage bias along polar  crystallographic direction until its mechanical break. The structural changes were investigated using coherent X-ray Bragg diffraction. The three-dimensional (3D) intensity distributions of the NWs without metal contacts, with contacts, and under applied voltage bias in opposite polar directions were analyzed. Coherent X-ray Bragg diffraction revealed the presence of significant bending of the NWs already after metal contacts deposition, which was increased at applied voltage bias. Employing analytical simulations based on elasticity theory and a finite element method (FEM) approach, we developed a 3D model of the NW bending under applied voltage. From this model and our experimental data, we determined the piezoelectric constant of the GaN NW to be about 7.7 pm/V in  crystallographic direction. The ultimate tensile strength of the GaN NW was obtained to be about 1.22 GPa. Our work demonstrates the power of in operando X-ray structural studies of single NWs for their effective design and implementation with desired functional properties.
|Status||Published - 2018 sep. 12|
- Den kondenserade materiens fysik
- Teknisk mekanik