AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Five subgroups were described in European diabetes patients using a data driven machine learning approach on commonly measured variables. We aimed to test the applicability of this phenotyping in Indian individuals with young-onset type 2 diabetes.
METHODS: We applied the European-derived centroids to Indian individuals with type 2 diabetes diagnosed before 45 years of age from the WellGen cohort (n = 1612). We also applied de novo k-means clustering to the WellGen cohort to validate the subgroups. We then compared clinical and metabolic-endocrine characteristics and the complication rates between the subgroups. We also compared characteristics of the WellGen subgroups with those of two young European cohorts, ANDIS (n = 962) and DIREVA (n = 420). Subgroups were also assessed in two other Indian cohorts, Ahmedabad (n = 187) and PHENOEINDY-2 (n = 205).
RESULTS: Both Indian and European young-onset type 2 diabetes patients were predominantly classified into severe insulin-deficient (SIDD) and mild obesity-related (MOD) subgroups, while the severe insulin-resistant (SIRD) and mild age-related (MARD) subgroups were rare. In WellGen, SIDD (53%) was more common than MOD (38%), contrary to findings in Europeans (Swedish 26% vs 68%, Finnish 24% vs 71%, respectively). A higher proportion of SIDD compared with MOD was also seen in Ahmedabad (57% vs 33%) and in PHENOEINDY-2 (67% vs 23%). Both in Indians and Europeans, the SIDD subgroup was characterised by insulin deficiency and hyperglycaemia, MOD by obesity, SIRD by severe insulin resistance and MARD by mild metabolic-endocrine disturbances. In WellGen, nephropathy and retinopathy were more prevalent in SIDD compared with MOD while the latter had higher prevalence of neuropathy.
CONCLUSIONS /INTERPRETATION: Our data identified insulin deficiency as the major driver of type 2 diabetes in young Indians, unlike in young European individuals in whom obesity and insulin resistance predominate. Our results provide useful clues to pathophysiological mechanisms and susceptibility to complications in type 2 diabetes in the young Indian population and suggest a need to review management strategies.
|Status||Published - 2022|
Bibliografisk information© 2021. The Author(s).
- Endokrinologi och diabetes