Neural cultures are very useful in neuroscience, providing simpler and better controlled systems than the in vivo situation. Neural tissue contains two main cell types, neurons and glia, and interactions between these are essential for appropriate neuronal development. In neural cultures, glial cells tend to overgrow neurons, limiting the access to neuronal interrogation. There is therefore a pressing need for improved systems that enable a good separation when coculturing neurons and glial cells simultaneously, allowing one to address the neurons unequivocally. Here, we used substrates consisting of dense arrays of vertical nanowires intercalated by flat regions to separate retinal neurons and glial cells in distinct, but neighboring, compartments. We also generated a nanowire patterning capable of guiding optic nerve axons. The results will facilitate the design of surfaces aimed at studying and controlling neuronal networks.