ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to present arguments for an integrated empirical research on teaching and learning based on previous research and the phenomenographic research tradition. From 1970 and for some years after, the main focus in phenomenographic research was on students’ approaches to and understanding of subject matter. Later, based on Variation theory and in the form of Learning studies, there has also been a focus on teacher presentation of subject matter. These 2 research foci on students’ and teachers’ treatment of subject matter, represent a good basis for integrated research on teaching and learning. Contextual Analysis is suggested as a relevant research approach to integrated research on teaching and learning.