Non-technical summary Mainstreaming climate objectives into sectoral work and policies is widely advocated as the way forward for sustainable public-private action. However, current knowledge on effective climate mainstreaming has rarely translated into policy outcomes and radical, transformational change. This 'implementation gap' relates to the limitations of current approaches, which do not adequately address so-called 'internal' or 'personal' spheres of transformation. Here, we address this gap and provide an integrative climate mainstreaming framework for improving and guiding future sustainability research, education, policy and practice. Technical summary Current knowledge on what makes climate mainstreaming effective has, so far, seldom translated into policy outcomes and radical, transformational change. This 'implementation gap' is related to the limitations of current approaches. The latter tend to focus on isolated, highly-tangible, but essentially weak leverage points that do not adequately link practical and political solutions with 'internal' or 'personal' spheres of transformation. This link involves an internal (mindset/consciousness) shift leading to long-lasting changes in the way that we experience and relate to our self, others, the world, and future generations. It requires unleashing people's internal potential and capacity to care, commit to, and effect change for a more sustainable life across individual, collective, organisational and system levels. To address this gap, we analyse how such internal dimensions can be integrated into climate mainstreaming, to move beyond its current, partial focus on external and technological solutions. Through a robust investigation of how to scale up climate mainstreaming in a more transformative manner, we explore how mainstreaming and conscious full-spectrum theories can be related to fundamentally advance the field and improve current approaches. The resulting integrative framework breaks new ground by linking the mainstreaming of climate considerations and internal dimensions across all spheres of transformation. We conclude with some policy recommendations and future research needs. Social media summary Linking climate policy integration/mainstreaming and personal development: An integrative framework.
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