BACKGROUND: Arteriosclerosis is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our aims were to investigate (1) the effects of 12 months of either balance- or strength- both in combination with endurance training on abdominal aortic calcification (AAC); on some lipids and calcific- and inflammatory markers; and (2) the relationships between the change in AAC score and these markers in non-dialysis dependent patients with CKD stages 3 to 5.
METHODS: One hundred twelve patients (mean age 67 ± 13 years), who completed 12 months of exercise training; comprising either balance- or strength training, both in combination with endurance training; with a measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) 22.6 ± 8 mL/min/1.73m2, were included in this study. AAC was evaluated with lateral lumbar X-ray using the scoring system described by Kauppila. Plasma fetuin-A, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and interleukin 6 (IL6) were measured with Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits.
RESULTS: After 12 months of exercise training, the AAC score increased significantly in both groups; mGFR and lipoprotein (a) decreased significantly in both groups; parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25(OH)2D3 increased significantly only in the strength group; fetuin-A increased significantly only in the balance group. Plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, FGF23, phosphate, calcium, IL6, C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin were unchanged. The increase in AAC score was positively related to ageing and the levels of baseline triglycerides and lipoprotein (a).
CONCLUSIONS: Exercise training did not prevent the progression of AAC; it might have contributed to the reduced levels of lipoprotein (a) and unchanged levels of calcific- and inflammatory markers in these patients with non-dialysis dependent CKD. Hypertriglyceridemia, high levels of lipoprotein (a) and ageing emerged as longitudinal predictors of vascular calcification in these patients.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02041156 at www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Date of registration: January 20, 2014. Retrospectively registered.
- Urologi och njurmedicin