Unequal excess mortality during the Spanish Flu pandemic in the Netherlands

Auke Rijpma, Ingrid Kirsten van Dijk, Ruben Schalk, Richard Zijdeman, Rick J. Mourits

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskriftPeer review


A century after the Spanish Flu, the COVID-19 pandemic has brought renewed attention to socioeconomic and occupational differences in mortality in the earlier pandemic. The magnitude of these differences and the pathways between occupation and increased mortality remain unclear, however. In this paper, we explore the relation between occupational characteristics and excess mortality among men during the Spanish Flu pandemic in the Netherlands. By creating a new occupational coding for exposure to disease at work, we separate social status and occupational conditions for viral transmission. We use a new data set based on men’s death certificates to calculate excess mortality rates by region, age group, and occupational group. Using OLS regression models, we estimate whether social position, regular interaction in the workplace, and working in an enclosed space affected excess mortality among men in the Netherlands in the autumn of 1918. We find some evidence that men with occupations that featured high levels of social contact had higher mortality in this period. Above all, however, we find a strong socioeconomic gradient to excess mortality among men during the Spanish Flu pandemic, even after accounting for exposure in the workplace.
TidskriftEconomics and Human Biology
Tidigt onlinedatum2022 sep. 12
StatusPublished - 2022 dec.

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ)

  • Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi


Utforska forskningsämnen för ”Unequal excess mortality during the Spanish Flu pandemic in the Netherlands”. Tillsammans bildar de ett unikt fingeravtryck.

Citera det här