CYLD lysine 63 deubiquitinase (CYLD) was originally identified as a tumor suppressor that is mutated in familial cylindromatosis. Unlike in cylindromatosis, downregulation of the deubiquitinase CYLD in melanoma, a highly aggressive tumor, is not caused by mutations in the CYLD gene, but rather by a constitutive and high expression of the snail family transcriptional repressor 1 (SNAIL1). A reduced CYLD level leads to B-cell lymphoma-3/p50/p52-dependent nuclear factorκB activation, which in turn triggers the expression of genes such as cyclin D1 and N-cadherin. Elevated levels of cyclin D1 and N-cadherin promote melanoma proliferation and invasion. By analyzing the regulation of CYLD expression in melanocytes, the present study identified a signaling pathway that is regulated in response to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in melanocytes. UVB light leads to an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated induction of SNAIL1 and subsequent downregulation of CYLD expression in normal human epithelial melanocytes. The UVB-mediated suppression of CYLD in melanocytes may have a key role in the reaction to UV stimuli, and may also potentially be involved in the early malignant transformation processes.
- Cancer och onkologi