For a stationary two-dimensional random field evolving in time, we derive statistical distributions of appropriately defined velocities. The results are based on a generalization of the Rice formula. We discuss importance of identifying the correct form of the distribution which accounts for the sampling bias. The theory can be applied to practical problems where evolving random fields are considered to be adequate models. Examples include changes of atmospheric pressure, variation of air pollution, or dynamical models of the sea surface elevation. We study the last application in more detail by applying the derived results to Gaussian fields representing irregular sea surfaces. In particular, we study statistical properties of velocities both for the sea surface and for the envelope field based on this surface. The latter is better fitted to study wave group velocities and is of particular interest for engineering applications. For wave and wave group velocities, numerical computations of distributions are presented and illustrated graphically. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Sannolikhetsteori och statistik