To explore oxidative stress and the radical scavenger α(1)-microglobulin (A1M) in the vitreous body of human eyes with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD).
Levels of carbonyl groups, a marker of oxidative stress, and A1M were measured by ELISA and RIA in 14 vitreous samples derived from patients suffering from RRD, and compared with 14 samples from macula hole (MH) patients. Carbonyl group and A1M levels in RRD samples were statistically related to detachment characteristics. Analysis of total protein level, SDS-PAGE, and Western blotting of A1M was also performed. In a separate experiment, mRNA expression of A1M was measured by RT-PCR in rat retina explants.
Levels of carbonyl groups and A1M varied widely in RRD vitreous samples, but were significantly higher in samples derived from eyes with large detachment area and macula-off status, while the presence of vitreous hemorrhage did not show any significant correlation. Compared with MH samples, RRD samples displayed significantly higher levels of A1M, whereas changes in total protein levels and carbonyl groups were not significant. Novel forms of A1M, not previously seen in plasma, were found in the vitreous body by Western blotting. Furthermore, A1M expression was seen in rat retina explants and was upregulated after 24 h of culturing.
Oxidative stress is a prominent feature of human eyes with primary RRD, and is directly related to detachment severity. Affected eyes can launch a protective response in the form of the radical scavenger A1M possibly derived from the retina. The results thus indicate potential therapeutic cell loss prevention in RRD by employing the endogeneous radical scavenger A1M.