This paper presents a multimode soft-output multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) signal detector that is efficient in hardware cost and energy consumption. The detector is capable of dealing with spatial-multiplexing (SM),break space-division-multiple-access (SDMA), and spatial-diversity (SD) signals of 4 ✕ 4 antenna and 64-QAM modulation. Implementation-friendly algorithms, which reuse most of the mathematical operations in these three MIMO modes, are proposed to provide accurate soft detection information, i.e., log-likelihood ratio, with much reduced complexity. A unified reconfigurable VLSI architecture has been developed to eliminate the implementation of multiple detector modules. In addition, several block level technologies, such as parallel metric update and fast bit-flipping, are adopted to enable a more efficient design. To evaluate the proposed techniques, we implemented the triple-mode MIMO detector in a 65-nm CMOS technology. The core area is 0.25 mm2 with 83.7 K gates. The maximum detecting throughput is 1 Gb/s at 167-MHz clock frequency and 1.2-V supply, which archives the data rate envisioned by the emerging long-term evolution advanced standard. Under frequency-selective channels, the detector consumes 59.3-, 10.5-, and 169.6-pJ energy per bit detection in SM, SD, and SDMA modes, respectively.
|Tidskrift||IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems|
|Status||Published - 2013|
Bibliografisk informationThere is a correction to the IEEE on-line version
- Elektroteknik och elektronik