WRF-SBM Simulations of Melting-Layer Structure in Mixed-Phase Precipitation Events Observed during LPVEx

Takamichi Iguchi, Toshihisa Matsui, Wei-Kuo Tao, Alexander P. Khain, Vaughan Phillips, Chris Kidd, Tristan L'Ecuyer, Scott A. Braun, Arthur Hou

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskriftPeer review


Two mixed-phase precipitation events were observed on 21 September and 20 October 2010 over the southern part of Finland during the Light Precipitation Validation Experiment (LPVEx). These events have been simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with spectral bin microphysics (WRF-SBM). The detailed ice-melting scheme with prognosis of the liquid water fraction during melting enables explicit simulation of microphysical properties in the melting layer. First, the simulations have been compared with C-band 3D radar measurements for the purpose of evaluating the overall profiles of cloud and precipitation. The simulation has some artificial convective patterns and errors in the forecast displacement of the precipitation system. The overall overestimation of reflectivity is consistent with a bias toward the range characterized by large-diameter droplets in the surface drop size distribution. Second, the structure of the melting bands has been evaluated against vertically pointing K-band radar measurements. A peak in reflectivity and a gradual change in Doppler velocity are observed and similarly simulated in the common temperature range from approximately 0 degrees to 3 degrees C. The effectiveness of the time-dependent melting scheme has been justified by intercomparison with a corresponding simulation using an instantaneous melting scheme. A weakness of the new melting scheme is that melting particles having high liquid water fractions on the order of 80%-90% cannot be simulated. This situation may cause underestimation of radar reflectivity in the melting layer because of the assumptions of melting-particle structure used to calculate the scattering properties.
Sidor (från-till)2710-2731
TidskriftJournal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology
StatusPublished - 2014

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