Effects of xylooligosaccharides (XOSs) as well as a mixture of XOS, inulin, oligofructose, and partially hydrolyzed guar gum (MIX) in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were studied. Control groups were fed an HFD or a low-fat diet. Special attention was paid to the cecal composition of the gut microbiota and formation of short-chain fatty acids, but metabolic parameters were also documented. The XOS group had significantly higher cecum levels of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids than the HFD group, and the butyric acid content was higher in the XOS than in the MIX group. The cecum microbiota of the XOS group contained more Bifidobacteria, Lachnospiraceae, and S24-7 bacteria than the HFD group. A tendency of lower body weight gain was observed on comparing the XOS and HFD groups. In conclusion, the XOS was shown to be a promising prebiotic candidate. The fiber diversity in the MIX diet did not provide any advantages compared to the XOS diet.